Bosnian War 1992-1995 Map

The Dayton Peace Agreement


Map of the administrative division of BiH under the agreement

The Dayton Agreement (or the Dayton Peace Agreement or Dayton ) is a legal act of consensual character initiated at a Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton , in the US state of Ohio , in order to officially ended war in Bosnia and Herzegovina , which lasted from 1992 . do 1995 . The agreement was particularly concerned with the future administrative and constitutional order of Bosnia and Herzegovina .

The conference lasted from 1 November to 21 November 1995 . years. The main participants were Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic , Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic , Croatian President Franjo Tudjman , and US Chief Mediator Richard Holbrooke and General Wesley Clark . The agreement was officially signed in Paris on December 14th . The current administrative division of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the composition of the government were some of the results of the agreement.

Process

The Dayton Agreement was the culmination of the so-called shuttle diplomacy launched by Richard Holbrooke with his US-sponsored team. The shuttle consisted of mediation diplomacy between the warring parties. In simpler terms, the shuttle diplomacy contact group played the role of courier and moderator who forwarded and moderated the requests of the warring parties.

Many of the basics and preconditions of the Dayton Agreement were actually started by shuttle diplomacy a year before the final conference. One of the most basic principles on which the Dayton Agreement was based was the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina by key 51-49 (51% of the territory of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 49% of the Republika Srpska ), which harmonized the so-called contact group.

However, in addition to the many agreed parts of the agreement, there were some problematic issues such as;

Legal and State Settlements:

  • Recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Neighboring States
  • Government composition
  • The division of power between the state and the entities
  • Institutions
  • Voting and Return of Refugees

Territorial Settlements:

  • Status and self-sustaining unblocking of Sarajevo
  • There is a corridor
  • Posavina territory
  • Brcko Corridor
  • Western Slavonia

Although many things had been agreed, the Dayton Accords had been declared unsuccessful half an hour before the conference closed, as the Bosnian side refused to accept the final settlement. The agreement, however, succeeded after a decision was made at the last moment that arbitration in connection with the Brcko corridor would take place in the subsequent period.

Dayton Peace Agreement Today

The Dayton Peace Agreement is nowadays considered by many to be obsolete and is criticized by mostly all three Bosnian parties, although the official Serbian policy in Banja Luka opposes its change, seeing it as attempt to overthrow Republika Srpska , which was formally confirmed by the agreement. In the everyday practical life of modern 21st century Bosnia, it is evident that the Dayton Agreement prevents any bolder and livelier progress of the country towards reintegration and reconstruction of civil society, as Bosnia knew until 1992. Dayton also appears to be partly an obstacle to Bosnia and Herzegovina's path to Euro-Atlantic integration, which envisages a more efficient, simpler and more transparent administrative apparatus, composed of two entities and one district, or a dozen cantons at a further level of government.